Wittgenstein's Critique of Freud and the Confusion between Reasons and Causes
What psychoanalysis studies is the suppression of these basic instincts.suppression,s suppression ""Now, takes place 's unconsciousmost of the ,theis unknown, it ""
""her sheshe""""', "struggle was '
e We know about our brain and the nervous
system.Because this kind of relation is unknown, erets ""
part of psyche
The id is the most basic part of the psyche and its urges
are very primitive. ,
has the job of deeming the person's
actions good or bad''
''I say that the Tractatus was an exercise
because upon completing it,
show how language is being used in everyday life He
constructed the picture theory of meaning and it claimed that propositions
are a form of picture of the world.These propositions
are made up of names placed in determinate relation to one another.
Propositions represent a possible state of affairs as long as the names in
the proposition stand for objects and the relationship of the names in the
proposition represent a possible arrangement of the objects for which the
names stand. however,
With the publication of the Philosophical Investigations,
Wittgenstein moved away from this strict system of language and introduced""
he"language-game," Wittgenstein. mistaken"e"""""meaning For example, the
language game of reasons is dialogical, whereas the language game of causes
Wittgenstein's criticisms are concerned Freud's confusion
of the grammar of causes and the grammar of reasons.
" By showing a "way,"
the person is giving some of the considerations that one would go through
when acting. ''
When providing reasons, "no number of agreeing experience
in necessary, and the statement of your reason is not a hypothesis" (Wittgenstein,
Giving a reason can be done in several different ways. From the previous
example, the man could describe the way he actually came to this specific
color (by copying the example) or he could say that he had a "memory
image" of the color from a color chart (Wittgenstein, 1969: 14).
Furthermore, if the order in the example could not have been obeyed or understood
without "previous teaching," the teaching could be considered the
reason for the action. If the order is understood and obeyed,
there is an assumed reason for this (Wittgenstein, 1969: 14). It is
important to keep in mind that when one is giving reasons, he is giving justifications.
The language-game of reasons is different from that of causes because the
language-game of causes is empirical. the word cause
I am justificationor aIIThe question that I am asking depends
on whether I want to know what the person knows about herself or what she
conjectures about a certain instance.
It would be impossible however, to confirm or deny the hypothesis.
In this example, Wittgenstein points out that the language
of causes involves experiments and the language of reasons involves agreement.
"." presents a''"""'"""Since there is a distinction between different
kinds of reasons, :
""This is''''"''" '
his idea of primary reason
A person can have a reason for an action, and perform
the action, and yet this reason not be the reason why he did it. Central
to the relation between a reason and an action it explains is the idea that
the agent performed the action because
he had a reason." (Davidson, 1997: 33)
and therefore, not a causethinksFor example,
the reasonif it is to be a reason.''
In order to distinguish a reason from
the reason without appealing to a cause, all one would have
to do is engage in dialog. 'through dialogue If I asked
you "why you hung up the phone on me," it would be inappropriate
for you to answer me with theories and hypotheses. I am asking for an
explanation of justification.
Ambrose, Alice and Macdonald, Margaret. 1979.
Wittgenstein’s Lectures, Cambridge,
1932-1935. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Bouveresse, Jacques. 1995. Wittgenstein Reads
Freud; The Myth of the Unconscious.
New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Davidson, Donald. 1997. Actions, Reasons,
and Causes. In The Philosophy of
Action. Oxford University Press. Alfred R. Mele, ed.
Evnine, Simon. 1991. Donald Davidson.
Stanford University Press: California.
Freud, Sigmund. 1949. An Outline of Psycho-Analysis.
New York: W. W. Norton
Freud, Sigmund. 1963. Dora: An Analysis of
a Case History of Hysteria. New York:
Simon and Schuster.
Gleitman, Henry; Fridlund, Alan; Reisberg, Daniel.
1999. Psychology, Fifth Edition.
New York: W. W. Norton Company.
McGinn, Marie. 1997. Wittgenstein and the
Routledge: New York.
Wittgenstein, Ludwig. 1969. The Blue Book.
New York: Barnes & Noble
Wittgenstein, Ludwig. 1953. Philosophical
Investigations. The Macmillan Company: