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Descriptions of Landtypes
Landtype Index:
Landtype 1 Broad, Undulating Sandstone Uplands Landtype 11 Upper Shale Slopes~South Aspect
Landtype 2 Broad Sandstone Ridges-North Aspect Landtype 12 Lower Shale Slopes-North Aspect
Landtype 3 Broad Sandstone Ridges-South Aspect Landtype 13 Lower Shale Slopes~South Aspect
Landtype 4 Narrow Sandstone Ridges and Convex Upper Slopes Landtype 14 Footslopes, Terraces, and Stream-bottoms with Good Drainage
Landtype 5 North Sandstone Slopes Landtype 15 Terraces, Streambottoms, and Depressions with Poor Drainage
Landtype 6 South Sandstone Slopes Landtype 16 Plateau Escarpment and Upper Sandstone Slopes and Benches-North Aspect
Landtype 7 Sandstone Outcrops and Shallow Soils Landtype 17 Plateau Escarpment and Upper Sandstone Slopes and Benches South Aspect
Landtype 8 Broad Shale Ridges~North Aspect Landtype 18 Lower Limestone Slopes, Benches, and Spur Ridges~North Aspect
Landtype 9 Broad Shale Ridges~South Aspect Landtype 19 Lower Limestone Slopes, Benches, and Spur Ridges-South Aspect
Landtype 10 Upper Shale Slopes-North Aspect Landtype 20 Limestone Outcrops and Shallow Soils
Landtype 1 Landtype 2 Landtype 4 Landtype 5 Landtype 6 Landtype 14 Landtype 15 Landtype 16 Landtype 17 Landtype 18 Landtype 19 Landtypes 2 Landtypes 7 Landtype 18 Landtype 19 Landtype 20

Description of Landtype 1:

Broad Undulating Sandstone Uplands

Geographic setting-Moderately deep to deep, loamy and clayey soils on level to sloping broad ridges that typically occupy the smoother and higher parts of the landscape in all subregions but more frequently Subregion 1. Slope does not exceed 10 percent, but the area with slope greater than 6 percent is small and aspect is not a dominant factor. These uplands may range up to 0.5 mile in width. Soils developed loamy residuum from sandstone or from interbedded sandstone and shale. In some places a 2- to 3-foot silty mantle (presumably loess) occurs over the residuum. This landtype grades into steeper broad ridges Landtypes 2 and 3) or into midslopes (Landtypes 5 and 6).

Dominant soils-Hartsells, Linker, Lonewood, Crossville, Lily, and Clarkrange are more common in Subregions 1 and 2, while Albertville, Enders, Nauvo and Wynuville are more common in Subregion 3. Volume of sandstone, and in places shale, fragments is 35 percent or less in the solum, but deeper horizons may contain more. Clarkrange and Wynnville soils have fragipans at depths of 18 to 28 inches.

Bedrock-Sandstone and conglomerate with the strata of shale and siltstone in places.

Depth to bedrock-20 to 90 inches.

Texture-Loam, fine sandy loam, and silt loam; sometimes gravelly, stony, or flaggy.

Soil drainage-Well drained except Clarkrange and Wynnville soils are moderately well drained.

Relative soil water supply-Medium.

Soil fertility-Moderately low.

Vegetation-White oak, scarlet oak, southern r oak, chestnut oak, hickories, black oak, blackgum, red maple, shortleaf pine, Virginia pine, and loblolly pine: occasional yellow-poplar, eastern white pine post oak, sweetgum, black locust, black cherry, and eastern redcedar. Dogwood, sassafras, sourwood, serviceberry, persimmon, sumac, hawthorns, viburnums, vacciniums, azaleas, American holly, and smilax are common understory species.

Description of Landtype 2:

Broad Sandstone Ridges-North Aspect

Geographic Setting-Moderately deep to deep, loamy soils on nearly level to steep north-facing portions of broad ridgetops and adjoining convex upper slopes in all subregions. This landtype extends from the ridge crest down to where the slope becomes linear or nearly so. At this point gradient usually increases noticeably. Slope ranges from 2 to 35 percent and is dominantly greater than 6 percent. Soils developed in loamy residuum from sandstone or from interbedded sandstone and shale. In some places a 2- to 3-foot silty mantle presumably loess occurs over the residuum Rock fragments occur on the surface in places. This landtype may occur below broad undulating uplands (Landtype 1) while north midslopes (Landtype 5 occur below it. This landtype may lie adjacent to Landtypes 14 and 15 in the heads of hollows.

Dominant soils-Hartsells, Linker, Lonewood, Crossville, and Lily are more common in Subregions 1 and 2, while Albertville, Enders and Nauvoo are common in Subregion 3.

Bedrock-Sandstone and conglomerate with thin strata of shale and siltstone in places.

Depth to bedrock- 20 to 72 inches.

Texture-Loam, fine sandy loam, and silt loam; sometimes gravelly, stony, or flaggy. Volume of san stone, and in places, shale fragments in the solum 35 percent or less, but deeper horizons may contain more.

Soil drainage-Well drained.

Relative soil water supply-Medium.

Soil fertility-Moderately low.

Vegetation- White oak, scarlet oak, southern red oak, chestnut oak, hickories, black oak, blackgum, red maple, shortleaf pine, Virginia pine, loblolly pine, and eastern white pine; occasional yellow poplar, northern red oak, black cherry, black locust, post oak, white ash, and eastern redcedar. Dogwood, sassafras, serviceberry, sourwood, persimmon, sumac, viburnums, vacciniums, azaleas, smilax, a American holly are common understory species.

Description of Landtype 3:

Broad Sandstone Ridges-South Aspect

Geographic setting-Moderately deep to deep, loam soils on nearly level to steep south-facing portions ( broad ridgetops and adjoining convex upper slopes in all subregions. This landtype extends from the ridge crest down to where the slope becomes linear or nearly so. At this point gradient usually increases noticeably. Slope ranges from 2 to 35 percent and is dominantly greater than 6 percent. Soils developed in loamy residuum from sandstone or from interbedded sandstone and shale. In some places a 2- to 3-foot silt mantle (presumably less) occurs over the residuun Rock fragments occur on the surface in places. South facing ridges tend to be somewhat steeper and have shallower soils with a higher rock content than north-facing ridges. This landtype may occur below broad undulating uplands (Landtype 1) while south midslopes (Landtype 6) occur below it. This landtype may lie adjacent to Landtypes 14 and 15 in the head of hollows.

Dominant soils-Hartsells, Linker, Lonewood, Crossville, and Lily are more common in Subregions 1 and 2, while Albertville, Enders, and Nauvoo are more common in Subregion 3.

Bedrock-Sandstone and conglomerate with thin strata of shale and siltstone in places.

Depth to bedrock-20 to 72 inches.

Texture-Loam, fine sandy loam, and silt loam sometimes gravelly, stony, or flaggy. Volume of sandstone, and in places, shale fragments in the solum 35 percent or less, but deeper horizons may contain more.

Soil drainage-Well drained.

Relative soil water supply-Medium.

Soil fertility-Moderately low.

Vegetation-White oak, scarlet oak, chestnut oat southern red oak, hickories, black oak, post oat blackgum, red maple, Virginia pine, shortleaf pine and loblolly pine; occasional black locust, eastern redcedar, eastern white pine, and yellow-poplar Dogwood, sassafrass, sourwood, persimmon, vaccniums, sumac, viburnums, serviceberry, and smilax are common understory species.

Description of Landtype 4:

Narrow Sandstone Ridges and Convex Upper Slopes

Geographic setting-Shallow to moderately deep loamy soils on gently sloping to steep, winding narrow ridgetops and adjoining convex upper slopes all subregions. Below this landtype are midslope (Landtypes 5 and 6). Landtype 4 is more common LTA-C (strongly dissected margins and sides of the plateau) and LTA-D (Crab Orchard Mountains Slope ranges from 0 to 40 percent. Typically this landtype is no wider than 250 feet. Rock fragment'. mostly sandstone and conglomerate, are common 0 the surface.

Dominant soils-Hector, Mountainburg, Ramsey Hartsells, Alticrest, Lily, and Muskingum.

Bedrock-Predominantly sandstone and conglomerate with thin strata of siltstone and shale in places.

Depth to bedrock-40 inches or less.

Texture-Sandy loam, fine sandy loam, and loan occasionally silt loam. Often gravelly, stony, or channery. Coarse fragment content of most soils does n( exceed 35 percent in the solum, except Mountainburg and Muskingum soils, which may have as much as 6 percent. Coarse fragment content usually increases with depth.

Soil drainage-Well drained to somewhat excessively drained.

Relative soil water supply-Low.

Soil fertility-Low.

Vegetation-White oak, chestnut oak, scarlet oak southern red oak, post oak, black oak, Virginia pin shortleaf pine, blackgum, blackjack oak, and hickory ones; occasional loblolly pine, eastern white pine, black locust, yellow-poplar, and eastern redcedar, Sassafras, sourwood, dogwood, vacciniums, sumac, persimmon, and buckthorn are common understory species.

Description of Landtype 5:

North Sandstone Slopes

Geographic setting-Shallow to moderately deep loamy and clayey soils with a wide range of coarse fragments on sloping to very steep north-facing linear to concave midslopes in all subregions. The landtype lies between narrow ridges, broad upland or broad ridges and convex upper slopes (Landtypes 1. 2. and 3) and concave footslopes, terraces, and streambottoms (Landtypes 14 and 15). Slope rang from 6 to 70 percent. Rock fragments are common ( the surface,

Dominant soils-Hartsells, Mountainburg, Hectc Townlcy, and Montevallo are common in Subregion 3: Lily, Alticrest, Dekalb, Gilpin, and Ramsey a:

more common in Subregions land 2.

Bedrock-Sandstone, conglomerate, sandstone interbedded with thin strata of siltstone and shale, interbedded shale and sandstone, and siltstone interbedded with sandstone and silty shale.

Depth to bedrock-40 inches and less.

Texture- Loam, fine sandy loam, sandy loam, and silty loam; may be stony, gravelly, shaly, channery, flaggy. Coarse fragment content ranges from 5 to ( percent in the solum and generally increases with depth.

Soil drainage-Well drained to somewhat excessive drained.

Relative soil water supply-Medium to high. Irrigated by subsurface flow.

Soil fertility-Moderately low to low.

Vegetation.-White oak, scarlet oak, black oak, yellow-poplar, hickories, blackgum, southern red oak red maple, and chestnut oak; occasional northern r~ oak, American beech, shortleaf pine, Virginia pin eastern white pine, loblolly pine, black cherry, white ash, sugar maple, eastern redcedar, eastern hemlock and black locust. Dogwood, sassafras, sourwood, serviceberry, laurel, vacciniums, viburnums, azalea sumac, persimmon, American holly, and smilax are common understory species.

Description of Landtype 6:

South Sandstone Slopes

Geographic setting-Shallow to moderately deep loamy and clayey soils with a wide range of coarse fragments on sloping to very steep south-facing linear to concave midslopes in all subregions. This landtype lies between narrow ridges, broad uplands or broad ridges and convex upper slopes (Landtype 1, 3, and 4) and concave footslopes, terraces, and streambottoms (Landtypes 14 and 15). Slope range from 6 to 70 percent. Rock fragments are common 0] the surface. South-facing slopes tend to be steep and have shallower soils with higher contents c coarse fragments than north-facing slopes.

Dominant soils-Hartsells, Mountainburg, Hectoi Townley, and Montevallo are more common in Subregion 3; Lily, Alticrest, Dekaib, Gilpin, and Ramsey are more common in Subregion 1 and 2.

Bedrock-Sandstone, conglomerate, sandstone inter bedded with thin strata of siltstone and shale, inter bedded shale and sandstone, and siltstone interbedded with sandstone and silty shale.

Depth to bedrock-40 inches or less.

Texture-Loam, fine sandy loam, sandy loam, and silt loam; may be stony, gravelly, shaly, channery, or flaggy. Coarse fragment content ranges from 5 to 6 percent in the solum and generally increases wit] depth.

Soil drainage-Well drained to somewhat excessively drained.

Relative soil water supply-Medium to high. Irrigated by subsurface flow.

Soil fertility-Moderately low to low.

Vegetation-White oak, chestnut oak, scarlet oak southern red oak, post oak, hickories, blackjack oak, black oak, red maple and blackgum; occasional Virginia pine, shortleaf pine, black locust, eastern red cedar, and loblolly pine. Dogwood, sassafras, sour wood, vacciniums, persimmon, smilax, sumac, and viburnums are common understory species.

Description of Landtype 7:

Sandstone Outcrops and Shallow Soils

Geographic setting-Small to moderately large areas of exposed sandstone and conglomerate and shallow loamy soils formed in residuum and locally i~ some colluvium or alluvium from sandstone, quartzite, and some shale on nearly level to moderately steep ridgetops, slopes, edges of the Plateau above the nearly vertical cliffs, and along deeply incise( streams and rivers in all subregions. Landtype 7 also occurs in sinkholes where the thin sandstone caprock has collapsed into underlying limestone caverns, particularly along the strongly dissected western mar gin (LTA-C) of Subregion 1. Slope ranges from 2 to 7( percent. The area of exposed rock varies from a few square feet to several acres in narrow strips to broad expanses. Slope of the rock surface usually is 5 per. cent or less. The very shallow dark brown or gray soils at the margins of exposed rock contain a very high percentage of organic matter. This landtype is associated with Landtypes 1 to 6. Landtype 7 has the lowest productivity of any landtype in the region.

Dominant soils-Hector, Ramsey, Mountainburg and sandstone outcrops.

Bedrock-Predominantly sandstone and conglomerate with thin strata of shale or siltstone in places.

Depth to bedrock-Less than 20 inches.

Texture-Gravelly, channery, and flaggy sandy loam fine sandy loam, and loam. Coarse fragment content ranges up to 60 percent in the solum and usually increases with depth.

Soil drainage-Well drained to somewhat excessively drained.

Relative soil water supply-Very low. Seepage is common in wet weather, but the soil dries quickly.

Soil fertility-Very low.

Vegetation-White oak, post oak, chestnut oak. blackjack oak, scarlet oak, southern red oak, and blackgum; occasional Virginia pine, shortleaf pine hickories, red maple, black locust, and eastern redcedar. Sourwood, dogwood, winged elm, mountainlaurel, vacciniums, lichens, mosses, grasses, and buckthorn are common understory species.

Description of Landtype 8:

Broad Shale Ridges~North Aspect

Geographic setting-Moderately deep to very deep, loamy and clayey soils on gently sloping to steep north-facing, low, broad hills and ridges above the surrounding undulating plateau top. This landtype extends from the ridge crest down to where the gradient usually increases noticeably. Slope ranges from 3 to 35 percent and is dominantly greater than 6 percent. Soils developed in residuum from shale, and siltstone, and thin strata of sandstone. In places there is a 2- to 3-foot layer of loess over the residuum. This landtype occurs in Subregions 1 and 2 mostly north of highway 1-40, where the caprock is shale members of the Crooked Fork group. Landtype 8 occurs above upper shale slopes (Landtype 10).

Dominant soils-Sequoia, Gilpin, Wellston, Whitley, and Tilsit.

Bedrock-Shale and siltstone, and thin strata of sandstone in places.

Depth to bedrock-24 to 60 inches or more. Tilsit soils have a fragipan at depths of 18 to 28 inches.

Texture-Silt loam and loam, occasionally silty clay loam; in places, shaly or channery. Coarse fragment content ranges from 0 to 40 percent in the solum, but is commonly less than 25 percent.

Soil drainage-Well drained except Tilsit soils are moderately well drained.

Relative soil water supply-Medium.

Soil fertility-Moderate to moderately low.

Vegetation-White oak, scarlet oak, hickories, black oak, shortleaf pine, and Virginia pine; occasional southern red oak, yellow-poplar, eastern white pine, red maple, blackgum, loblolly pine, black locust, and black cherry. Dogwood, sourwood, sassafras, persimmon, vacciniums, smilax, azaleas, and viburnums are common understory species.

Description of Landtype 9:

Broad Shale Ridges~South Aspect

Geographic setting-Moderately deep to very deep, loamy and clayey soils on gently sloping to steep south-facing, low, broad hills and ridges above it:

surrounding undulating plateau top. This landtype extends from the ridge crest down to where the gradient usually increases noticeably. Slope ranges from 3 to 35 percent and is dominantly greater than percent. Soils developed in residuum from shale and siltstone, and thin strata of sandstone. In places there is a 2- to 3-foot layer of loess over the residuum. The landtype occurs in Subregions 1 and 2 mostly north highway 1-40, where the caprock is shale members the Crooked Fork group. Landtype 9 occurs above upper shale slopes (Landtype 11).

Dominant soils-Sequoia, Gilpin, Weliston, Whitle' and Tilsit.

Bedrock-Shale and siltstone and thin strata sandstone in places.

Depth to bedrock-24 to 60 inches or more. The soils have a fragipan at depths of 18 to 28 inches.

Texture-Silt loam, loam, and occasionally silty clay loam, in places, shaly or channery. Volume of coarse fragments ranges from 0 to 40 percent in the solum but it commonly less than 25 percent.

Soil drainage-Well drained except Tilsit soils are moderately well drained.

Relative soil water supply-Medium.

Soil fertility-Moderate to moderately low.

Vegetation-White oak, chestnut oak, scarlet oak, hickories, black oak, shortleaf pine, and Virgin pine; occasional southern red oak, blackjack oak, p0:

oak, eastern white pine, black locust, red maple, blackgum, yellow-poplar, loblolly pine, and black cherry. Dogwood, sourwood, sassafras, persimmon, azaleas, smilax, and viburnums are common understory species.


Description of Landtype 10:

Upper Shale Slopes-North Aspect

Geographic setting-Shallow to moderately deep loamy and shaly soils on moderately steep to very steep, north-facing linear to convex upper slopes Soils formed in residuum from shale, siltstone, and thin strata of sandstone. Interspersed areas of shallow rubble are common. Slope ranges from 10 to 70 per. cent and is commonly greater than 20 percent. This landtype occurs in Subregions 1 and 2, mostly north of highway 1-40, where the caprock is shale member.' of the Crooked Fork group. Landtype 10 occurs below broad shale ridges (Landtype 8) and above lower shale slopes (Landtype 12).

Dominant soils-Ramsey, Muskingum, Gilpin, and Berks, and shale rubble.

Bedrock-Shale and siltstone; occasionally thin strata of sandstone.

Depth to bedrock-7 to 40 inches.

Texture-Silt loam, loam, and occasionally fine sandy loam; usually shaly or channery. Volume of coarse fragments ranges from 20 to 75 percent in the solum and usually increases in with depth.

Soil drainage-Well drained to somewhat excessively drained.

Relative soil water supply-Medium to low. Irrigated by subsurface flow, but the porous soil drain rapidly.

Soil fertility-Moderate to moderately low.

Vegetation-White oak, scarlet oak, chestnut oak hickories, yellow-poplar, black oak, red maple, blackgum, and eastern white pine; occasional southern red oak, shortleaf pine, Virginia pine, northern red oak, eastern hemlock, black cherry, white ash, sugar maple, black locust, and loblolly pine. Dogwood, sourwood, sassafras, mountain laurel, persimmon, vacciniums, strawberry bush, devils-walkingstick, striped maple, smilax, azaleas, and viburnums are common understory species.


Description of Landtype 11:

Upper Shale Slopes~South Aspect

Geographic setting-Shallow to moderately deep loamy and shaly soils on moderately steep to very steep, south-facing linear to convex upper slope Soils formed in residuum from shale, siltstone, and thin strata of sandstone. Areas of shale rubble a common. Slope ranges from 10 to 70 percent and commonly greater than 20 percent. South-facing slopes tend to be steeper and have shallower soil with higher contents of coarse fragments than north facing slopes. This landtype occurs in Subregions and 2, mostly north of highway 1-40, where the ca rock is shale members of the Crooked Fork group Landtype 11 occurs below broad shale ridges (Landtype 9) and above lower shale slopes (Landtype 1

Dominant soils-Ramsey, Muskingum, Gilpin, and Berks, and shale rubble.

Bedrock-Shale and siltstone; occasionally thin strata of sandstone.

Depth to bedrock-7 to 40 inches.

Texture-Silt loam, loam, and occasionally fine san loam, usually shaly or channery. Volume of coarse fragments ranges from 20 to 75 percent in the solum and usually increases with depth.

Soil drainage-Well drained to somewhat excessively drained.

Relative soil water supply-Medium to low. Irrigated by subsurface flow, but the porous soil drain rapidly.

Soil fertility-Moderate to moderately low.

Vegetation-White oak, scarlet oak, chestnut oak, hickories, Virginia pine, shortleaf pine, black oak, and post oak; occasional southern red oak, blackjack oak, eastern white pine, red maple, black locust, blackgum, and loblolly pine. Dogwood, sourwood, sassafras, laurel, vacciniums, smilax, persimmon, azaleas, and viburnums are common understory species.


Description of Landtype 12:

Lower Shale Slopes-North Aspect

Geographic setting-Deep to very deep, shaly

gravelly, loamy soils formed in colluvium from shaly siltstone, and in places, sandstone, and underlain shale, siltstone, and sandstone. This landtype occupies the moderately steep to very steep, north-foci lower concave dopes. Slope ranges from 5 to 60 ~E cent, but is commonly greater than 20 percent. This landtype occurs in Subregions 1 and 2, mostly nor of highway 1-40, where the caprock is shale member of the Crooked Fork group. This landtype occurs I low upper shale slopes (Landtype 10) and may with footslopes, terraces, and streambottoms (Landtypes 14 and 15).

Dominant soils-Jefferson and Shelocta.

Bedrock-Shale, siltstone, and some sandstone.

Depth to bedrock-more than 40 inches up to I

inches.

Texture-Loam and silt loam; sometimes sandy clay

loam, and clay loam; usually shaly or channery sometimes gravelly. Coarse fragment content ranging from 5 to 80 percent in the solum and increases w depth.

Soil drainage-Well drained.

Relative soil water supply-Medium to high. Ii

gated by subsurface flow; wet weather seeps are common.

Soil fertility-Moderate to moderately low.

Vegetation-White oak, northern red oak, yellow poplar, hickories, black oak, eastern white pine, e~ em hemlock, blackgum, and red maple; occasionally Virginia pine, shortleaf pine, scarlet oak, south red oak, chestnut oak, black cherry, sugar maple, white ash, black locust, bigleaf magnolia, and loblolly pine. Dogwood, sourwood, sassafras, mount laurel, rhododendron, witch-hazel, azaleas, viburnums, persimmon, strawberry bush, devils-walkingstick, striped maple, and spicebush are common understory species.


Description of Landtype 13:

Lower Shale Slopes~South Aspect

Geographic setting-Deep to very deep, shaly gravelly, loamy soils formed in colluvium from shale, siltstone, and in places, sandstone, and underlain I shale, siltstone, and sandstone. This landtype occupies the moderately steep to very steep, south-facing lower concave slopes. Slope ranges from 5 to 60 percent, but is commonly greater than 20 percent. South-facing slopes tend to be steeper and have shallower soils with higher contents of coarse fragments than north-facing slopes. This landtype occurs Subregions 1 and 2, mostly north of highway 1-4 where the caprock is shale members of the Crook' Fork group. This landtype occurs below upper shale slopes (Landtype 11) and merges with footslopes, terraces, and streambottoms ) Landtypes 14 and 15).

Dominant soils-Jefferson and Shelocta.

Bedrock-Shale, siltstone, and some sandstone.

Depth to bedrock-More than 40 inches up to 1.'

inches.

Texture-Loam and silt loam; sometimes sandy clay

loam, and clay loam; usually shaly or channery sometimes gravelly. Coarse fragment content range from 5 to 80 percent in the solum and increases with depth.

Relative soil water supply-Medium to high. Irrigated by subsurface flow; wet weather seeps are common, but duration is short during the growing s( son.

Soil fertility-Moderate to moderately low.

Vegetation-White oak, scarlet oak, chestnut oak, hickories, black oak, blackgum, red maple, Virginia pine, and shortleaf pine: occasional southern red oak, eastern white pine, yellow-poplar, northern red oak, post oak, black locust, black cherry, and loblolly pine, Dogwood, sassafras, sourwood, rhododendron, vacciniums, azaleas, strawberry bush, devils-walkingstick, striped maple, and viburnums are common understory species.


Description of Landtype 14:

Footslopes, Terraces, and Stream-bottoms with Good Drainage

Geographic setting-Deep, loamy soils with goo drainage on level to strongly sloping concave fool slopes, stream terraces, and heads of hollows on the Plateau surface in all subregions. Slope ranges from 0 to 15 percent. This landtype typically occurs below Landtypes 5, 6, 12, and 13 as narrow strips along intermittent drainages or level bottomland along permanent streams, creeks, and rivers but can also occur below Landtypes 1, 2, 3, 8, and 9 near the head of streams. When Landtypes 14 and 15 are adjacent Landtype 14 occupies a higher position on the landscape. In gorges of the Plateau interior, particularly in LTA-C of Subregion 1, this landtype occurs below Landtypes 16 and 17 where streams have not c~ through the sandstone caprock, and below Landtype 18 and 19 where streams have cut through the sandstone caprock into the underlying Pennington and Bangor formations. This landtype is the second most productive one in the region.

Dominant soils-Sewanee, Clifty, Ealy, Cotaco, Barbourville, Pope, and Philo.

Parent material-Alluvium, and in places, colluvium from soils developed in residuum from sandstone, siltstone, and shale, and underlain by sandstone, siltstone, shale, and limestone.

Depth to bedrock-40 inches to 12 feet or more.

Texture-Loam, fine sandy loam, silt loam, and sand loam; occasionally gravelly. Coarse fragment content ranges from 0 to 35 percent and usually increases with depth.

Soil drainage-Moderately well drained to well drained.

Relative soil water supply-High. Irrigated by subsurface flow. Seeps occur on footslopes in winter or spring. Streambottoms may have seasonal watertable for 1 to 3 months.

Soil fertility-Moderate.

Vegetation-White oak, yellow-poplar, red maple, blackgum, sweetgum, black oak, and loblolly pin occasional southern red oak, scarlet oak, eastern white pine, eastern hemlock, shortleaf pine, Virgin pine, bigleaf magnolia, American sycamore, American elm, American beech, and hackberry. Dogwood, sassafras, sourwood serviceberry, blue-beech, mountain-laurel, viburnums, strawberry bush, devils-walkingstick, striped maple, azaleas, cane, a] American holly are common in the understory.

 


Description of Landtype 15:

Terraces, Streambottoms, and Depressions with Poor Drainage

Geographic setting-Deep, loamy soils with ~O( drainage on level to gently sloping stream terrace' heads of hollows, and depressions on the Plateau surface in Subregions 1, 2, and 3. Slope ranges from to 3 percent. This landtype typically occurs below Landtypes 5, 6, 12, and 13 as narrow strips along intermittent drainages or level bottomland along permanent streams, creeks, and rivers but can also occur below Landtypes 1, 2, 3, 8, and 9 near the head of streams. When landtypes 14 and 15 are adjacent Landtype 14 occupies a higher position on the landscape. In gorges on the Plateau interior, particularly in Subregion 1, this landtype occurs below Landtype 16 and 17 where streams have not cut through the sandstone caprock, and below Landtype 18 and 1 where streams have cut through the caprock into the underlying Pennington and Bangor formations.

Dominant soils-Bonair, Atkins, and Stokly.

Parent material-Alluvium washed from soils developed in residuum from sandstone, siltstone, an shale, and underlain by sandstone, siltstone, shale and limestone.

Depth to bedrock-40 inches to 5 feet or more.

Texture-Loam, fine sandy loam, silt loam, and sand loam; occasionally silty clay loam. Coarse fragment content ranges from 0 to 20 percent in the solum an usually increases with depth.

Soil drainage-Poorly drained to somewhat poorly drained.

Relative soil water supply-High to very high. Irrigated by subsurface flow. Subject to flooding for brief periods and has a water table within a foot or less the surface from January to May.

Soil fertility-Moderate.

Vegetation-Red maple, sweetgum, blackgum, yellow-poplar, white oak, American sycamore, and loblolly pine; occasional American elm, America beech, cottonwood, water oak, willow oak, black willow, and boxelder. Viburnums, azaleas, mountain laurel, American holly, cane, sphagnum moss, alder, dogwood, buckthorn, strawberry hush, Virginia willow, and sedges are common in the understory.


Description of Landtype 16:

Plateau Escarpment and Upper Sandstone Slopes and Benches-North Aspect

Geographic setting-Deep to very deep, loamy so

formed in colluvium from sandstone, siltstone, a shale, and underlain by sandstone, siltstone, or shale in all subregions. Occupies the gently sloping to very steep upper one-third to one-half of northerly slop that extend from the Plateau escarpment to the adjacent limestone valleys. Slope ranges from 5 to percent. Much of the surface is covered with san stone boulders and fragments. At the Plateau center, particularly in the Sequatchie Valley, the landtype may be absent if escarpment development has progressed down to limestone. In gorges of the Plateau interior, primarily in Subregion 1, where stream cutting has not carved through the sandstone caprock, this landtype occurs between the escarpment and larger streams and rivers and Landtype is absent. In narrow gorges the lower one-fourth one-half of south-facing slopes (Landtype 17) should be included with Landtype 16 because shading modifies the normal warm microclimate. This landtype a mesic site and has the highest productivity of any landtype in the region.

Dominant soils-Cririmsley, Jefferson, Ramsey, a]

Zenith. Formerly mapped as sandstone rockland bouldery colluvial land.

Bedrock-Sandstone, siltstone, and shale.

Depth to bedrock-40 to 60 inches or more.

Texture-Gravelly or cobbly loam, silt loam, sand

clay loam, or clay loam.

Soil drainge-well drained.

Relative soil water supply-Very high to high. Irrigated by subsurface flow and seepage.

Soil fertility-Moderate to moderately low.

Vegetation-White oak, northern red oak, yellow poplar, chestnut oak, sugar maple, hickories, American beech, black oak, white ash, white basswood yellow buckeye, and black locust; occasional black gum, elms, red maple, southern red oak, eastern hemlock, eastern white pine, chinkapin oak, black cherry, black walnut, and cucumbertree. Dogwood eastern redbud, bigleaf magnolia, spicebush, bladdernut, hydrangea, viburnums, azaleas, rh dodendrons, sourwood, grape, and pawpaw are common understory species. This landtype also support a rich herbaceous flora.


Description of Landtype 17:

Plateau Escarpment and Upper Sandstone Slopes and Benches South Aspect

Geographic setting-Deep to very deep, loamy 50 formed in colluvium from sandstone, siltstone, and shale, and underlain by sandstone, siltstone, or shale in all subregions. Occupies the gently sloping to v& steep upper one-third to one-half of southerly slop that extend from the Plateau escarpment to the adjacent limestone valleys. Slope ranges from 5 to percent. Much of the surface is covered with san stone boulders and fragments. At the Plateau e tenor, particularly in the Sequatchie Valley, the landtype may be absent if escarpment development has progressed down to limestone. In gorges of the Plateau interior, primarily in Subregion 1, where stream cutting has not carved through the sandstone caprock, this landtype occurs between the escarpment and larger steams and rivers and landtype 19 absent. In narrow gorges the lower one-fourth to or half of these slopes should be included in Landtype because shading mollifies the normal warm microclimate. This landtype is not as productive as Landtype 16, and forests lack the preponderance of mesic species found on north aspects.

Dominant soils-Grimsley, Ramsey, Jefferse Formerly mapped as sandstone rockland or boulder colluvial land.

Bedrock-Sandstone, siltstone, and shale.

Depth to bedrock-40 to 60 inches or more.

Texture-Gravelly or cobbly loam, silt loam, sandy clay loam, or clay loam.

Soil drainage-Well drained.

Relative soil water supply-Medium to low. Irrigated by subsurface flow and seepage. This landtype is not as moist as Landtype 16.

Soil fertility-Moderately low to low.

Vegetation-White oak, chestnut oak, northern r oak, hickories, black oak, red maple, yellow-poplar and black locust; occasional blackgum, elms, eastern white pine, white ash, black cherry, black walnut, sugar maple, southern red oak, shortleaf pine, Virginia pine, loblolly pine, and American beech. Do wood, viburnums, eastern redbud, sourwood, azaleas and grape are common understory species.


Description of Landtype 18:

Lower Limestone Slopes, Benches, and Spur Ridges~North Aspect

Geographic setting-Moderately deep to very de loamy and clayey soils formed from limestone siduum and some colluvium from sandstone, 5 stone, and shale and underlain by limestone in subregions. Occupies the gently sloping to very steep lower one-half to two-thirds of northerly slopes that extend from the Plateau escarpment to the adjacent limestone valleys, or the entire northern slopes narrow spur ridges that extend into the adjacent valleys. Slope ranges from 2 to 75 percent. Sandstone boulders may be present, but up to 40 percent of I surface is covered with outcrops of limestone. ~ material between the rocks is compact, sticky, heavy clay. Coarse fragments in the soil vary from less than 10 percent to 65 percent. This landtype usually occur downslope from Landtype 16 and is less product than north upper slopes. Landtype 20 often occur below this landtype on footslopes dominated limestone outcrops. Where the escarpment has developed down to limestone, however, this landtype extends from the base of the escarpment down to 1 adjoining valleys. This landtype is absent in gorge' the Plateau interior where streams have not through the sandstone caprock. Where streams h~ cut through the sandstone caprock into the underlying Pennington and Bangor formations, this la] type occurs below Landtype 16 and above Landtype 14 and 15. In deeply cut, narrow gorges the lower one-fourth to one-half of south-facing slopes (La] type 19) should be included with Landtype 18 because shading mollifies the normal warm microclimate

Dominant soils-Bouldin, Allen, Nella, and Talb(

Formerly mapped as limestone rockland or boulder colluvial land.

Bedrock-Limestone.

Depth to bedrock-Mostly 60 inches or more but be 20 to 40 inches where Talbott soils occur.

Texture-Cobbly to stony loam, sandy loam, c loam, and silt loam.

Soil drainage-Well drained.

Relative soil water supply-Medium to low. ~ water percolates deep into the limestone.

Soil fertility-Moderate to moderately low.

Vegetation-White oak, chestnut oak, northern oak, black oak, hickories, scarlet oak, southern I oak, and yellow-poplar; occasional blackgum, maple, sugar maple, eastern white pine, post oak, chinkapin oak, and elms. Dogwood, eastern redbud, winged elm, viburnums, sumac, ironwood, ~ hawthorns are common in the understory.


Description of Landtype 19:

Lower Limestone Slopes, Benches, and Spur Ridges-South Aspect

Geographic setting-Moderately deep to very de loamy and clayey soils formed in colluvium from sandstone, siltstone, and shale and from limestone residuum, and underlain by limestone in all subregions. Occupies the gently sloping to very steep lower one-half to two-thirds of southerly slopes that extend from the Plateau escarpment to the adjacent limestone valleys, or the entire southerly slopes of narrow spur ridges that extend into the adjacent valley. Slope ranges from 2 to 75 percent. Sandstone boulders may be present, but up to 40 percent of 1 surface is covered with outcrops of limestone. ~ material between the rocks is compact, sticky, heavy clay. Coarse fragments in the soil vary from less t~ 10 percent to 65 percent. This landtype usually occur downslope from Landtype 17 and is less product than south upper slopes. Landtype 20 often occur below this landtype on footslopes dominated by limestone outcrops. Where the escarpment has eroded down to limestone, however, this landtype extends from the base of the escarpment down to the adjacent valleys. This landtype is absent in gorges of Plateau interior where streams have not cut through the sandstone caprock. Where streams have through the sandstone caprock into the underly Pennington and Bangor formations, this landtype occurs below Landtype 17 and above Landtypes and 15. In deeply cut, narrow gorges the lower 0 fourth to one-half of these slopes should be included in Landtype 18 because shading mollifies the non warm microclimate.

Dominant soils-Bouldin, Allen, Nella, and Talb Formerly mapped as limestone rockland or bould colluvial land.

Bedrock-Limestone.

Depth to bedrock-Mostly 60 inches or more but 11

be 20 to 40 inches where Talbott soils occur.

Texture-Cobbly to stony loam, sandy loam, c

loam, and silt loam.

Soil drainage-Well drained.

Relative soil water supply-Low to very low. water percolates deep into the limestone.

Soil fertility-Moderate to moderately low.

Vegetation-White oak, scarlet oak, chestnut oak, hickories, eastern redcedar, white ash, post oak, southern red oak, black oak, and elms; occasional maple, blackgum, black locust, chinkapin oak, honeylocust, blue ash, American beech, Virginia pine, shortleaf pine, and loblolly pine. Eastern redbud, dogwood, winged elm, viburnums, ironwood, hawthorns, and sumac are common in the understory.


Description of Landtype 20:

Limestone Outcrops and Shallow Soils

Geographic setting-Small to extensive areas

limestone outcrops interspersed with patches of shallow to moderately deep, clayey soils on gently sloping to steep footslopes in all subregions. This intricate pattern of soil and rock outcrops occurs mostly between Landtypes 18 and 19 and the adjacent limestone valleys but may occur intermingled with Landtypes 18 and 19. Eastern redcedar often dominates this landtype. Slope ranges from 2 to 40 percent. ~ mass may contain up to 65 percent limestone slabs. More than 50 percent of the surface may be exposed limestone. Where the exposed rock is extensive, often terraced but the slope of each terrace is near horizontal.

Dominant soils-Barfield, Gladeville, and limestE

rockland. Pockets of moderately deep Talbott n occur in this landtype.

Bedrock-Limestone.

Depth to bedrock-Mostly less than 20 inches

ranges up to 40 inches where Talbott soils occur

Texture-Silty clay loam, silty clay, clay, and

loam.

Soil drainage-Well drained to excessively drain Relative soil water supply-Low. Seepage is common in wet weather, but the soil dries quickly.

Fertility-Moderate.

Vegetation-Eastern red cedar, hickories, hackberry, white ash, and elms; occasional honeylocust, Virginia pine, blackjack oak, blue ash, black walnut, southern red oak, and osage-orange. Forbs, grasses, sumac, eastern redbud, winged elm, buckthorn, hawthorns, and pricklypear are common in understory.