The Colors in One Dye
Top left: Nylon
Left to right: Wool, Cotton, Linen/Cotton
Bottom left to right: Silk, Acetate, Polyester
The bottoms are tied with leather and hung with wood beads. I used the technique of macramae to tie the hemp into decorative tassles at between the wool and cotton and linen/cotton. On the sides are hemp cords with pieces of the wool felting at the ends.
When we did the experiment with dyeing earlier in the semester in Dyes Lab 2, the dye mixture we used with the test strip produced some very interesting results. The test strip had several different types of materials that were unidentified. Our test strip came out with a wide range of colors from dark green to light blue. I wanted to somewhat replicate this idea with using several different types of materials and see all the colors I could produce from a single dye recipe, the same one that was used with the test strip previously. For one gram of fabric the ratio was 10 drops of Flavine Yellow, 10 drops of Yellow 135, and 15 drops Blue #2.
To observe the effect of a single dye recipe on different materials.To record how long it takes the dye to exhaust and to observe how well each material retains the properties of the dye and to measure the L*a*b* of each material. To then take the materials and make a wall-hanging displaying all of their differences.
Based on how the test strip came out in my first dyeing experiment and what I guessed the fabrics to be, I think wool will come out a deep forest green color. Nylon will be a light sky blue. Cotton will be forest green, though not as dark as wool. Polyester will be a very light blue. Linen/Cotton will be forest green. Acetate will be a light blue darker than nylon and polyester. Silk will be dark greenish blue.
[Everything in this section is taken from wikipedia or other online sources cited in the links.]
-Acid Dye is a member of a class of dye that is applied from an acidic solution. In the home or art studio, the acid used in the dye bath is often vinegar (acetic acid) or citric acid.
In textiles, acid dyes are effective on protein fibers, i.e. animal hair fibers like wool, alpaca and mohair. They are also effective on silk. They are effective in dyeing the synthetic fiber nylon but of minimal interest in dyeing any other synthetic fibers.
Acid dyes are generally divided into three classes which depend on fastness requirements, level dyeing properties and economy. The classes overlap and generally depend on type of fiber to be colored and also the process used.
Acid dyes are thought to fix to fibers by hydrogen bonding. They are normally sold as the Sodium salt therefore they are in solution anionic. Animal protein fibers and synthetic Nylon fibers contain many cationic sites therefore there is an attraction of anionic dye molecule to a cationic site on the fiber. The strength (fastness) of this bond is related to the desire/ chemistry of the dye to remain dissolved in water over fixation to the fiber.
-PRO WashFast Acid Dyes
Designed to permanently dye protein fibers -- animal fibers like wool, silk, angora, mohair, alpaca, soy silk, and nylon. They have excellent wash and light fastness properties. All colors intermix well and dye with a minimum of salt and acid. Substitute ammonium sulfate (for pastel to medium shades) or citric acid crystals ( for pastel to dark shades) for acetic acid 56% and obtain level dyeing results without the odor. Apply at a boil for solid shade dyeing and steam set when printing, hand painting or rainbow dyeing. Two ounces of dye will color 12 pounds of wool to a medium shade.
-Wool is the fiber derived from the fur of animals of the Caprinae family, principally sheep, but the hair of certain species of other mammals such as goats, alpacas, llamas and rabbits may also be called wool. This article deals explicitly with the wool produced from domestic sheep. Wool's scaling and crimp make it easier to spin and felt the fleece. They help the individual fibers attach to each other so that they stay together. Because of the crimp, wool fabrics have a greater bulk than other textiles and retain air, which causes the product to retain heat. Insulation also works both ways; bedouins and tuaregs use wool clothes to keep the heat out.
-Cotton is a soft fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant (Gossypium spp.), a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, India, and Africa. However, virtually all of the commercial cotton grown today worldwide is grown from varieties of the native American species Gossypium hirsutum (Upland cotton) and Gossypium barbadense. The fibre is most often spun into thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile, which is the most widely used natural-fibre cloth in clothing today.
-Polyester is a category of polymers, or, more specifically condensation polymers, which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. Usually, polyester refers to cloth woven from polyester fiber. Polyester clothing is generally considered to have a "less natural" feeling to it compared to natural fibers. Polyester fibers are often spun together with fibers of cotton, producing a cloth with some of the better properties of each.
Although polyesters do exist in nature (e.g., in the cutin of the plant cuticle), polyester generally refers to the large family of synthetic polyesters (plastics) which includes polycarbonate and above all polyethylene terephthalate (PET). PET is one of the most important thermoplastic polyesters.
Polyester is combustible but due to its thermoplastic nature, it tends to shrink away from the flame source and often self-extinguishes.
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons made by the larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori reared in captivity (sericulture). The shimmering appearance for which silk is prized comes from the fibres' triangular prism-like structure which allows silk cloth to refract incoming light at different angles.
-Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons made by the larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori reared in captivity (sericulture). The shimmering appearance for which silk is prized comes from the fibres' triangular prism-like structure which allows silk cloth to refract incoming light at different angles.
-The term "linen" refers to yarn and fabric made from flax fibers. Linens were manufactured almost exclusively of fibers from the flax plant Linum usitatisimum.
Linen may be the oldest textile material in the world. Its history goes back many thousands of years. Fragments of straw, seeds, fibres, yarns and various types of fabrics which date back to about 8000 B.C. have been found in Swiss lake dwellings. Linen was used in the Mediterranean in the pre-Christian age. Linen was sometimes used as currency in ancient Egypt. Egyptian mummies were wrapped in linen because it was seen as a symbol of light and purity, and as a display of wealth. Some of these fabrics, woven from hand spun yarns, were extremely fine and the fineness of the yarns in them cannot be produced on spinning machines.
Today flax is a prestigious, expensive fiber and only produced in small quantities. It has a long "staple" (individual fiber length) relative to cotton and other natural fibers.
-Nylon is a thermoplastic material. It is made of repeating units linked by peptide bonds (another name for amide bonds) and is frequently referred to as polyamide (PA). Nylon was the first commercially successful polymer and the first synthetic fiber to be made entirely from coal, water and air. These are formed into monomers of intermediate molecular weight, which are then reacted to form long polymer chains. It was intended to be a synthetic replacement for silk and substituted for it in parachutes and also making things like ropes, flak vests, vehicle tires, combat uniforms and many other military uses after the United States entered World War II in 1941, making stockings hard to find until the war's end. Nylon fibers are now used in fabrics, bridal veils, carpets and ropes, and solid nylon is used for mechanical parts and as an engineering material. Engineering grade Nylon is processed by extrusion, casting & injection molding. Type 6/6 Nylon 101 is the most common commercial grade of Nylon, and Nylon 6 is the most common commercial grade of cast Nylon.
-Cellulose acetate or acetate rayon fiber (1924) is one of the earliest synthetic fibers and is based on cotton or tree pulp cellulose ("biopolymers"). These "cellulosic fibers" have passed their peak as cheap petro-based fibers (nylon and polyester) and have displaced regenerated pulp fibers.
It was invented by two Swiss brothers, Doctors Camille and Henri Dreyfus, who originally began chemical research in a shed behind their father's house in Basel, Switzerland. In 1905, Camille and Henri developed a commercial process to manufacture cellulose acetate. The Dreyfus brothers initially focused on cellulose acetate film, which was then widely used in celluloid plastics and film. By 1913, Camille and Henri's studies and experiments had produced excellent laboratory samples of continuous filament acetate yarn. In 1924, the first commercial acetate filament was spun in the United States and trademarked as Celanese [
Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers first produced on February 28, 1935 by Wallace Carothers at DuPont.
-ACETATE is not a strong fiber but can be extruded into fibers of different diameter and woven into fabrics that have the luxurious look of silk but do not wear like silk. Acetate does not absorb moisture readily but dries fast and resists shrinking. This is a resilient fabric that resists wrinkling in addition to being pliable and soft with a good drape. Triacetate is an improved acetate fabric which doesn’t melt as easier and is easier to care for. Remember, acetate in nail polish and nail polish remover will melt acetate as will alcohol so take care with perfumes and nail products including SuperGlue.
-Hemp: The valued primary fibers are contained around the hollow, woody core of the hemp stalk. These long, strong fibers that grow the length of the hemp stalk are considered bast fibers Hemp fiber possesses properties similar to other bast fibers (flax, kenaf, jute and ramie) and excels in fiber length, strength, durability, absorbency, antimildew and antimicrobial properties.
PRO WashFast Acid Dye Blue #2 (Unknown name) [4.5g/250ml]
PRO WashFast Acid Dye Yellow 135 [4.5g/250ml] and Flavine Yellow [4.5g/250ml]
Sodium Chloride (NaCl)
1/8 yard of each: Wool, Cotton, Polyester, Silk, Linen/Cotton blend [60/40], Nylon, Acetate
Hemp cording and cotton string
First I had to mix the dyes from their powered form. I weighed out 4.5g of the powered dye then I mixed it with 250ml of water and put it in the bottles for use.
Dye recipe: 4/9 Blue #2, 5/18 Yellow 135, 5/18 Flavine Yellow
1. Measure the weight of the fabric. [Use 1ml of dye recipe for each gram of fabric].
2. Soak fabric in water with 1-2ml of Synthropol
3. Use 60ml RO Water for each gram of fabric. Add water to empty beaker.
4. Heat the water to 41-43 degrees Celsius.
5. Add 2ml of Acetic Acid [5%] and 2ml of Sodium chloride (NaCl) [6.0g/200ml] to the water.
6. Measure dye and to water.
7. Take fabric out of water and Synthropol mixture and squeeze out excess water then add to dye bath.
8. Stir for 3-5 minutes.
9. Gently raise temperature to a boil.
10. Stir intermittently until dye is exhausted or fabric appears to have stopped absorbing the dye .
11. Take beaker off the hot plate and it cool.
12. Rinse fabric out until no more dye is squeezed out and hang up to dry.
13. Measure L*a*b* with Colorimeter.
|Fabric/Material||Weight||Acetic Acid||NaCl||Flavine Yellow [5/18]||Yellow 135 [5/18]||Blue #2 [4/9]||RO Water|
|Cotton String and Leather||--||66ml||66ml||10ml||10ml||15ml||2000ml|
|Wool Felting||4g||8ml||8ml||1.1ml (39 drops)||1.1 (39 drops)||1.7 (61 drops)||240ml|
|Material||Soaking time||Added to dye||Removed from dye||Time dyed||Exhausted?||Color after dry|
|Wool||1:25pm-1:55pm [30 min.]||1:55pm||2:45pm||50 minutes||yes||dark green|
|Cotton||1:25pm-1:55pm [30 min.]||1:55pm||3:10pm||75 minutes||no||sky blue|
|Polyester||2:15pm-2:55pm [40 min.]||2:55pm||4:10pm||75 minutes||no||white|
|Silk||not soaked||3:20pm||4:05pm||45 minutes||yes||light yellowish green|
|Linen/Cotton||not soaked||9:40am||10:45am||65 minutes||no||very light blue|
|Nylon||1:30pm-1:55pm [25 min.]||1:55pm||2:35pm||40 minutes||yes||dark green|
|Acetate||1:30pm-1:45pm [15 min.]||1:45pm||3:10pm||85 minutes||no||powder blue|
|Wood beads||1:30pm-2:35pm [65 min.]||2:35pm||4:00pm||85 minutes||no||light green|
|Hemp||9:30am-9:40am [10 min.]||9:40pm||10:25am||45 minutes||no||light bluish green|
|Cotton string/Leather||9:40am-9:50am [10 min.]||9:50pm||10:30am||40 minutes||no||light blue/dark green|
|Wool felting||3:00pm-3:20pm [20 min.]||3:20pm||3:45pm||25 minutes||yes||multicolored dark green and blue|
|Observations before dyeing||Observations while dyeing||Observations after dyeing|
|Wool||The fabric is a light cream color and coarse compared to the other materials.||Wool soaked up dye surprisingly fast and exhausted almost completely, leaving only a slight yellow in the water.||The color is somewhat spotty and seems to have followed the grain of the fabric.|
|Cotton||The fabric is soft and light weight. It is white.||I accidentally added twice the amount of dye to the cotton so it did not come close to exhausting.||Dried much lighter than it was wet and shrank quite a bit.|
|Polyester||The fabric is heavy and slinky. It is white.||The polyester seemed to absorb some of the blue dye while still in the dye but after rinsing nearly all of the dye was washed out.||Took several days to dry and retained only a slight stain of blue.|
|Silk||The fabric is stiff and very light. It is white with a sheen.||Silk exhausted the dye quickly. I had to add 300ml of RO water because of evaporation.||The silk before it was stiff but after dyeing it is very soft but still retained the sheen. It seemed to have absorbed the yellows better than the blue, thus the yellowish green color.|
|Linen/Cotton||The fabric is not woven very tight. It is white.||The breaker blew at 10:00am and wasn't resolved until 10:10am. The linen/cotton did not absorb much of the dye at all.||After drying, the linen was not very evenly dyed. Some places were almost white. Over all a very light blue.|
|Nylon||The fabric is heavy and stiff. It is white.||Nylon absorbed the blue dye first and exhausted nearly all of the dye leaving the water a light green color.||Nylon dyed the darkest and most even of all the materials. Still quite stiff after drying.|
|Acetate||The fabric is light and shiny white.||Acetate did not absorb any of the dye until late in the dye process.||Acetate dyed a very bright light blue and retained a shiny quality.|
|The beads are multicolored from natural to dark brown.||I used a paper towel to keep the beads submerged in the dye bath and they eventually absorbed water and sank down to the bottom.||The wood beads after drying are a light green and though they were multicolored, after dyeing they did not have as much of a difference in color.|
|Hemp||The cord is a natural color.||The hemp absorbed the color very quickly but without exhausting the dye. Within about fifteen minutes the hemp absorbed as much as it would.||The hemp took almost 5 days to dry.|
|Cotton string||The string is white and very light.||Did not dye very well at all. Absorbed very little dye.||The cotton string seemed to have dyed a light blue color but while making my project much of the blue was rubbed off.|
|Leather cord||The cord is a natural color.||Slow dyeing process, but it eventually took the color quite well.||The leather is a very dark green and took several days to dry.|
|Wool felting||The wool is bleached white but still maintains a light cream color.||Very absorbent! Within 25 minutes all of the dye was completely exhausted.||The wool is not evenly dyed some places are dark green and others are dark blue.|
From bottom: Wool, Cotton, Nylon, Aceate, Silk, Polyester, Linen/Cotton
I used the colorimeter to measure the L*a*b* of my materials after dyeing. L is the lightness from black to white. White being 90 and black being 0, +a is red and -a is green, +b is yellow and -b is blue. I then went to colorpro.com and used their Color Metric Converter to get the color swatches that are shown in the table.
|Small wood beads||46.06||-4.98||5.16|
The blue I used in my dye recipe was not labeled so the Chemistry department called it "Blue #2." I did a sight test with other blues that the chemistry department also had to see if I could determine what this mystery dye was.
From left: Brilliant Blue, Navy Blue, Brilliant Violet, National Blue, and Blue #2
I concluded from sight comparison that Blue #2 is probably National Blue.
Just as ProChemical states on its website, washfast acid dye works best with protein based fibers. I did find it very interesting how the different materials some color of dye more than the other. Wool, while it was a dark forest green color, silk turned out much more yellow and less blue. Polyester, a synthetic fiber dyed slightly, if not at all. This is not surprising since washfast acid dyes are not for synthetic materials. The material I found the most interesting was the nylon, which I suspected of not dyeing very dark because it is a synthetic fiber, like polyester. My hypothesis was less than half correct. Wool, polyester, and acetate came out close to what I hypothesized but nylon, cotton, linen/cotton, and silk turned out completely different from my hypothesis.
In conclusion, I found many different colors in a single dye receipe ranging from dark green to yellowish green, to light blue. No two materials dyed the same color and from the colorimeter results the variances in color are quite large.
I used the procedure from Dyes Lab #2.
Thank you to my mom, who guided me in making my final wall hanging.